Access And Modify Virtual Machine Disk Images With Libguestfs

栏目: IT技术 · 发布时间: 2天前

来源: ostechnix.com

内容简介:TheLibguestfs works with almost all Linux file systems (ext2/3/4, XFS, btrfs, etc.), windows file systems (vfat and ntfs), Mac OS and BSD file systems, LVM2 volumes, MBR and GPT disk partitions, RAW disks, QCOW2, VirtualBox VDI, VMWare VMDK, and Hyper-V VH

本文转载自:https://ostechnix.com/access-and-modify-virtual-machine-disk-images-with-libguestfs/,本站转载出于传递更多信息之目的,版权归原作者或者来源机构所有。

The libguestfs is a C library and a collection of tools on this library to create, view, access and modify virtual machine disk images in Linux. You can look inside the disk images, modify the files they contain, create them from scratch, resize them, and a lot more. It doesn't require libvirt or KVM and doesn't require root privileges either. Red Hat sponsors the development of libguestfs. It supports many Linux distributions and Unix variants like Mac OS.

Libguestfs works with almost all Linux file systems (ext2/3/4, XFS, btrfs, etc.), windows file systems (vfat and ntfs), Mac OS and BSD file systems, LVM2 volumes, MBR and GPT disk partitions, RAW disks, QCOW2, VirtualBox VDI, VMWare VMDK, and Hyper-V VHD/VHDX. It can even access local files and local devices like CD and DVD ISOs, SD cards, or remotely over FTP, HTTP, SSH, iSCSI, NBD, GlusterFS, Ceph, Sheepdog, and much more.

Libguestfs features

Using libguest tools, we can do a whole lot of tasks as listed below:

  • Create guest virtual machines,
  • Clone virtual machines,
  • Build VMs,
  • Customize VMs,
  • Scripting changes to VMs,
  • Inspect VM images,
  • View and edit files inside guest machines,
  • Copy files and directories to and from virtual machines,
  • Display information about filesystems, devices, LVM,
  • Archive, upload and download files,
  • Monitor disk used/free statistics,
  • Format virtual disks,
  • Resize virtual disks,
  • Performing backups,
  • Mount and unmount guest filesystem in host system,
  • P2V (convert a physical machine to run virtualized on KVM, OpenStack, oVirt, Red Hat Virtualization),
  • V2V (convert a guest machine from a foreign hypervisor to run on KVM),
  • Display log files,
  • Merge changes in the windows registry in windows guests,
  • and much more.

You can do all of these tasks either via a scriptable shell called guestfish , or an interactive rescue shell virt-rescue .

Install libguestfs on Linux

Run the following command to install libguestfs on Debian, Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt install libguestfs-tools

On CentOS, RHEL:

$ sudo dnf install libguestfs-tools

Once installed, check the version of guestfish using command:

<strong>$ guestfish --version</strong>
guestfish 1.40.2

Access And Modify Virtual Machine Disk Images With Libguestfs

Make sure the guest machines are powered off. You must not modify the live images for any reason. It may lead to permanent disk corruption and data loss. Always backup the disk images before making any changes in them.

1. Guestfish shell

Guestfish, short for guest filesystem shell, is an interactive shell for editing virtual machine filesystems and disk images.

1.1. Access existing disk images and mount guest filesystems manually

First, let us load an existing disk image to inspect.

Run the following command from to enter into guestfish interactive shell:

$ guestfish

Sample output:

Welcome to guestfish, the guest filesystem shell for
editing virtual machine filesystems and disk images.

Type: ‘help’ for help on commands
      ‘man’ to read the manual
      ‘quit’ to quit the shell

><fs>

Access And Modify Virtual Machine Disk Images With Libguestfs

Here, ><fs> indicates the guestfish prompt.

..and then add the disk images using command:

><fs> add ~/CentOS_8_Server.img

Next, run the following command to initiate the library and attach (launch) the disk image:

><fs> run

It will take a few seconds in the first time. The subsequent starts will finish much faster.

Now you need to list and mount guest filesystems manually.

To view the list of filesystems in the disk, run this command from guestfish prompt:

><fs> list-filesystems

Sample output:

/dev/sda1: ext4
/dev/cl/root: xfs
/dev/cl/swap: swap

Mount a filesystem:

><fs> mount /dev/cl/root /

Display mount points:

><fs> <strong>mountpoints</strong> 
/dev/cl/root: /

Similarly, mount the other filesystems.

1.2. Access existing disk images and mount guest filesystems automatically

Instead of manually listing and mounting the guest filesystems, you can let the guestfish to automatically inspect the images and mount filesystems using -i flag like below.

$ guestfish -a CentOS_8_Server.img -i

Here,

  • -a (--add) parameter will automatically detect the disk image format. To override this and specify a particular format use the --format option.
  • -i (--inspector) - Inspect the disks and mount the filesystems.
  • CentOS_8_Server.img - name of the disk image. I have this image in my current directory.

This command will load the given image, mount guest file systems and land you inside the guestfish shell.

Welcome to guestfish, the guest filesystem shell for
editing virtual machine filesystems and disk images.

Type: ‘help’ for help on commands
      ‘man’ to read the manual
      ‘quit’ to quit the shell

Operating system: CentOS Linux release 8.2.2004 (Core) 
/dev/cl/root mounted on /
/dev/sda1 mounted on /boot

><fs>

Access And Modify Virtual Machine Disk Images With Libguestfs

If you used the "-i" parameter, you don't have to list and mount guest filesystems manually. The filesystems will be automatically mounted. Also, you don't need to initiate the library and attach the disk image by yourself. Guestfish itself will take care of it.

1.3. Access virtual machines instead of just disk images

Guestfish has an option to access the virtual machines (domains) instead of the disk images.

First, get the name of the virtual machines using command:

$ <strong>virsh list --all</strong>
 Id   Name            State
--------------------------------
 -    centos8-uefi    shut off
 -    nginx_centos8   shut off

To access the VM named "centos8-uefi", use -d or --domain option like below.

$ guestfish -d centos8-uefi -i

1.4. Viewing And Modifying Contents Of Disk Images

Guestfish supports hundreds of commands to view and modify disk images as you please. You will be overwhelmed if you look into the whole man page. So it is better to know how to get help first.

List all commands

If you don't know where to start, simply bring up the help section using command:

><fs> help

To list all available commands along with a brief description, run:

><fs> help -l

Get help of a specific command

To get help of any command, for example mkdir, run:

<fs> help mkdir

Now let us see a few examples.

List block devices

To list all the block devices in the image, run:

><fs> <strong>list-devices</strong> 
/dev/sda

List partitions

To list all the partitions detected on all block devices, run:

><fs> <strong>list-partitions </strong>
/dev/sda1
/dev/sda2

List directory contents

To list the files in a given directory, run:

><fs> <strong>ls /root</strong>
.bash_history
.bash_logout
.bash_profile
.bashrc
.cshrc
.tcshrc

View file contents

To display the contents of a file, run:

><fs> <strong>cat /etc/fstab</strong> 

#
# /etc/fstab
# Created by anaconda on Thu Feb  6 06:43:28 2020
#
# Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk/'.
# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info.
#
# After editing this file, run 'systemctl daemon-reload' to update systemd
# units generated from this file.
#
/dev/mapper/cl-root     /                       xfs     defaults        0 0
UUID=5e675dd6-7f64-46cd-8535-3617f3cf870b /boot                   ext4    defaults        1 2
/dev/mapper/cl-swap     swap                    swap    defaults        0 0

Create directories

The following command will create a directory named "ostechnix" under /root directory in the guest system.

><fs> mkdir /root/ostechnix

Create empty files

To create an empty file inside the guest machine, do:

><fs> touch /root/ostechnix/file.txt

Verify if the file has been created:

><fs> <strong>ls /root/ostechnix/</strong>
file.txt

Create files with contents

To create a file with some contents in it, use write command:

><fs> write /root/ostechnix/file2.txt https://ostechnix.com

The above command will create file2.txt in /root/ostechnix/ directory and write "https://ostechnix.com" in it.

You can verify it using "cat" command:

><fs> <strong>cat /root/ostechnix/file2.txt</strong> 
https://ostechnix.com

Append contents to existing files

To append new content at the end of an already created file, use "write-append" command:

<fs> write-append /root/ostechnix/file2.txt /about

The above command will add the word "/about" at the end of the file1.txt contents.

Verify if the line is added, use cat command:

><fs> <strong>cat /root/ostechnix/file2.txt</strong> 
https:/ostechnix.com/about

Edit files

To edit a file on the guest machine, use "edit" command:

><fs> edit /root/ostechnix/file.txt

The given file will open in the default editor.

Remove files and directories

To remove a file from the guest machine:

><fs> rm /root/ostechnix/file2.txt 
><fs> rm /root/ostechnix/file.txt

To remove a directory, use "rmdir" command:

><fs> rmdir /root/ostechnix/

Copy local files or directories into disk image

The "copy-in" command copies the local files or directories recursively into the disk image.

The following command will copy the file ostechnix.txt from the local system to /root/ostechnix/ in disk image.

<fs> copy-in ostechnix.txt /root/ostechnix/

Verify it using ls command:

<fs> <strong>ls /root/ostechnix/</strong>
file.txt
ostechnix.txt

Copy files or directories from disk image to host system

Similarly, we can copy the files or directories from a disk image to the local host system using "copy-out" command like below.

<fs> copy-out /root/ostechnix/ /home/sk/Downloads/

In the above example, I am copying the /root/ostechnix/ directory to Downloads directory in the host system.

Download files to the host system

This is  same as copy-out command.

Guestfish allows you to download and upload contents from guest machine to host machine and vice versa.

The general syntax to download files:

download <guest_file_location> <host_file_location>

The following command will download the "/etc/fstab" file from the guest machine to the /home/sk/Downloads/ directory in the KVM host system.

<fs> download /etc/fstab /home/sk/Downloads/fstab

Upload files from host system to guest system

This is same as copy-in command.

To upload a file from your host system to the guest machine, run:

><fs> upload /home/sk/Downloads/fstab /etc/fstab

Here, I am uploading /home/sk/Downloads/fstab file from my local system to /etc/fstab in the guest machine.

Display guestfish manual page

To display the man pages of guestfish:

><fs> man

Exit guestfish

To exit from guestfish shell, run:

><fs> exit

What we have seen so far is we accessed, mounted, inspected and modified existing disk images. Guestfish can also help you to create new disk images instantly.

1.5. Creating new disk images

The following commands should be run outside of the guestfish shell. In other words, they should be run in your host terminal.

Remember we added the existing images using -a parameter? Yes. To create a new disk image, we are going to -N (--new) parameter.

To create a new disk image and automatically launch it, run the following command from the host terminal (not in the guestfish) prompt:

$ guestfish -N fs

This command will create a new disk named "test1.img" in the current directory and land you inside the guestfish prompt. This disk will contain a single partition, with an empty filesystem. By default, the disk size will be 1GB . If you run the same command next time, it will create a new disk named "test2.img" with size 1G and so on.

Instead of creating a fixed size 1G disk, It is possible to create a custom-sized disk image as well.

To create a blank 500MB disk , run:

$ guestfish -N disk:500M

You can also create a disk image formatted with specific file system. For instance, the following command will create a 1G disk with an ext4 -formatted partition, called test1.img in the current directory:

$ guestfish -N fs:ext4

Create a 500MB disk with a VFAT -formatted partition, and mount it:

$ guestfish -N fs:vfat:500M -m /dev/sda1

Create a blank 500MB disk called blankdisk.img (instead of default name test1.img):

$ guestfish -N blankdisk.img=disk:500M

1.6. Adding remote disk images

Not just local disk images, we can also add disks located on a remote SSH, FTP, HTTP or TFTP server.

Add a disk located on a remote SSH server:

$ guestfish -a ssh://<a href="/cdn-cgi/l/email-protection" data-cfemail="8af8e5e5fecabbb3b8a4bbbcb2a4b8b8bfa4bfb8">[email protected]</a>/disk.img

Replace the username and IP address in the above command with your own.

Add a disk located on a remote FTP server:

$ guestfish -a ftp://<a href="/cdn-cgi/l/email-protection" data-cfemail="dda8aeb8af9db4adbcb9b9afb8aeae">[email protected]</a>:port/disk.img
$ guestfish -a ftps://<a href="/cdn-cgi/l/email-protection" data-cfemail="3d484e584f7d544d5c59594f584e4e">[email protected]</a>:port/disk.img

Add a disk located on a remote HTTP server:

$ guestfish -a http://<a href="/cdn-cgi/l/email-protection" data-cfemail="e194928493a1889180858593849292">[email protected]</a>:port/disk.img
$ guestfish -a https://<a href="/cdn-cgi/l/email-protection" data-cfemail="fd888e988fbd948d9c99998f988e8e">[email protected]</a>:port/disk.img

Add a disk located on a remote TFTP server:

$ guestfish -a tftp://<a href="/cdn-cgi/l/email-protection" data-cfemail="2c595f495e6c455c4d48485e495f5f">[email protected]</a>:port/disk.img

2. Access, View and modify disk images without entering into guestfish shell

Libguestfs provides many other equivalent commands to access, view and modify disk images, without actually entering into guestfish shell.

2.1. guestmount

Guestmount command is used to mount a guest filesystem on the host using FUSE and libguestfs.

The following command will mount the centos8-uefi guest machine's fulesystem in ~/guestvm/ in the host system.

$ mkdir ~/guestvm/
$ sudo guestmount -d centos8-uefi -i ~/guestvm/

Verify the contents of the mount directory:

$ sudo ls -l ~/guestvm

Sample output:

total 16
lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root    7 May 11  2019 bin -> usr/bin
dr-xr-xr-x.  6 root root 4096 Jul 18 15:46 boot
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 Jul 18 15:23 dev
drwxr-xr-x. 78 root root 8192 Jul 25 17:54 etc
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 May 11  2019 home
lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root    7 May 11  2019 lib -> usr/lib
lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root    9 May 11  2019 lib64 -> usr/lib64
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 May 11  2019 media
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 May 11  2019 mnt
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 May 11  2019 opt
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 Jul 18 15:23 proc
dr-xr-x---.  2 root root  135 Jul 18 15:46 root
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 Jul 18 15:23 run
lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root    8 May 11  2019 sbin -> usr/sbin
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 May 11  2019 srv
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root    6 Jul 18 15:23 sys
drwxrwxrwt.  7 root root  119 Jul 25 18:44 tmp
drwxr-xr-x. 12 root root  144 Jul 18 15:24 usr
drwxr-xr-x. 20 root root  278 Jul 18 15:45 var

To unmount it, run:

$ sudo umount ~/guestvm

For more details, refer man pages.

$ man guestmount

2.2. virt-cat

Virt-cat command isued to view the contents of a file stored in a disk image or virtual machine.

$ sudo virt-cat -a CentOS_8_Server.img /etc/fstab

Or,

$ sudo virt-cat -d centos8-uefi /etc/fstab

Sample output:

#
# /etc/fstab
# Created by anaconda on Sat Jul 18 05:53:25 2020
#
# Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk/'.
# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info.
#
# After editing this file, run 'systemctl daemon-reload' to update systemd
# units generated from this file.
#
/dev/mapper/cl-root     /                       xfs     defaults        0 0
UUID=6a7f6481-5eb3-4589-ad19-b2291ddfcda1 /boot                   ext4    defaults        1 2
UUID=6906-5D0A          /boot/efi               vfat    umask=0077,shortname=winnt 0 2
/dev/mapper/cl-swap     swap                    swap    defaults        0 0

2.3. virt-copy-in

Virt-copy-in command is used to copy files and directories from host to a disk image or virtual machine.

$ sudo virt-copy-in -a CentOS_8_Server.img ostechnix.txt /root/

Or,

$ sudo virt-copy-in -d centos8-uefi ostechnix.txt /root/

2.4. virt-copy-out

Virt-copy-out command is used to copy files and directories out of a disk image or virtual machine.

$ sudo virt-copy-out -a CentOS_8_Server.img /root/ostechnix.txt ~/Downloads

Or,

$ sudo virt-copy-in -d centos8-uefi /root/ostechnix.txt ~/Downloads

The above commands will copy the /root/ostechnix.txt file from the virtual machine disk to ~/Downloads directory in the local host system.

2.4. virt-df

Virt-df command displays the free space on a guest machine filesystem.

View free space on a disk image:

$ sudo virt-df -a CentOS_8_Server.img

Sample output:

Filesystem                                Size       Used  Available  Use%
CentOS_8_Server.img:/dev/sda1             976M       260M       649M   27%
CentOS_8_Server.img:/dev/cl/root           17G       1.4G        16G    9%

View disk space on a VM:

$ sudo virt-copy-in -d centos8-uefi /root/ostechnix.txt ~/Downloads

Sample output:

Filesystem                                Size       Used  Available  Use%
centos8-uefi:/dev/sda1                    599M       6.6M       592M    2%
centos8-uefi:/dev/sda2                    976M       121M       788M   13%
centos8-uefi:/dev/cl/root                  16G       1.2G        15G    8%

2.5. virt-edit

Edit a file in a disk image or virtual machine.

$ sudo virt-edit -a CentOS_8_Server.img /root/ostechnix.txt

Or,

$ sudo virt-edit -d centos8-uefi /root/ostechnix.txt

This command will open the remote file in the default editor. Just make the changes and save and close the file.

2.6. virt-filesystems

List filesystems, partitions, block devices, LVM in a virtual machine or disk image.

$ sudo virt-filesystems -a CentOS_8_Server.img -l

Or,

$ sudo virt-filesystems -d centos8-uefi -l

Sample output:

Name          Type        VFS   Label  Size         Parent
/dev/sda1     filesystem  vfat  -      629145600    -
/dev/sda2     filesystem  ext4  -      1073741824   -
/dev/cl/root  filesystem  xfs   -      17620271104  -

To display partition details, add --partitions in the above command:

<strong>$ sudo virt-filesystems -d centos8-uefi --partitions</strong>
/dev/sda1
/dev/sda2
/dev/sda3

Similarly, you can use --logical-volumes , --volume-groups , --physical-volumes , --block-devices to list those items.

2.7. virt-inspector

Virt-inspector is used to display operating system version and other information about a disk image or virtual machine.

$ sudo virt-inspector -a CentOS_8_Server.img

Or,

$ sudo virt-inspector -d centos8-uefi

2.8. virt-ls

Virt-ls is used to display the files and directories and their sizes, attributes, checksums in a disk image or virtual machine.

$ sudo virt-ls -R -a CentOS_8_Server.img / | less

Or,

$ sudo virt-ls -R -d centos8-uefi /root

You can use most of the normal "ls" command options/flags with virt-ls command.

2.9. virt-log

Virt-log is used to display the log files from a disk image or virtual machine.

$ sudo virt-log -a CentOS_8_Server.img

Or,

$ sudo virt-log -d centos8-uefi

2.10. virt-tail

Virt-tail command is used to follow log files in a disk image or a virtual machine.

$ sudo virt-tail -a CentOS_8_Server.img /var/log/messages

Or,

$ sudo virt-tail -d centos8-uefi /var/log/messages

There are many more commands available. I suggest you to refer the libguestfs website linked at the end of this guide.

Suggested read:

Troubleshooting

Here are the solutions for a few common issues.

1. libguestfs doesn't work without root permissions on Ubuntu

You might be encountered with this error when trying to access the disk images on Ubuntu:

libguestfs: error: /usr/bin/supermin exited with error status 1.
To see full error messages you may need to enable debugging.
Do:
  export LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 LIBGUESTFS_TRACE=1
and run the command again.  For further information, read:
  http://libguestfs.org/guestfs-faq.1.html#debugging-libguestfs

To fix this issue, run:

$ sudo chmod 0644 /boot/vmlinuz*

You may need to add yourself to the kvm group:

$ sudo usermod -a -G kvm sk

Replace "sk" in the above command with your own user name.

  1. If you already have installed libvirt or KVM on your system and try to use libguesfs tools as root user, you should see this permission error:
libguestfs: error: could not create appliance through libvirt.

Try running qemu directly without libvirt using this environment variable:
export LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND=direct

Original error from libvirt: Cannot access backing file '/root/CentOS_8_Server.qcow2' of storage file '/tmp/libguestfsiPjmga/overlay1.qcow2' (as uid:107, gid:107): Permission denied [code=38 int1=13]

This is caused by libvirt, and so only happens when using the libvirt backend. To fix this, switch to the direct backend by setting this environment variable:

export LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND=direct

To make it permanently, add this line to your ~/.bashrc file.

Resource:


以上就是本文的全部内容,希望本文的内容对大家的学习或者工作能带来一定的帮助,也希望大家多多支持 码农网

关注码农网公众号

关注我们,获取更多IT资讯^_^


为你推荐:

查看所有标签

本站部分资源来源于网络,本站转载出于传递更多信息之目的,版权归原作者或者来源机构所有,如转载稿涉及版权问题,请联系我们

Ethnography and Virtual Worlds

Ethnography and Virtual Worlds

Tom Boellstorff、Bonnie Nardi、Celia Pearce、T. L. Taylor / Princeton University Press / 2012-9-16 / GBP 21.00

"Ethnography and Virtual Worlds" is the only book of its kind - a concise, comprehensive, and practical guide for students, teachers, designers, and scholars interested in using ethnographic methods t......一起来看看 《Ethnography and Virtual Worlds》 这本书的介绍吧!

CSS 压缩/解压工具
CSS 压缩/解压工具

在线压缩/解压 CSS 代码

随机密码生成器
随机密码生成器

多种字符组合密码

Markdown 在线编辑器
Markdown 在线编辑器

Markdown 在线编辑器