Git checkout 命令

更新时间: 2019-07-13 17:17

git-checkout - Switch branches or restore working tree files

语法

git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [<branch>]
git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] --detach [<branch>]
git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] <commit>
git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [[-b|-B|--orphan] <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
git checkout [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
git checkout (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]

参数

-q, --quiet
    Quiet, suppress feedback messages.

--[no-]progress
    Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless --quiet is specified.
    This flag enables progress reporting even if not attached to a terminal, regardless of --quiet.

-f, --force
    When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away local changes.

    When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.

--ours, --theirs
    When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2 (ours) or #3 (theirs) for unmerged paths.

    Note that during git rebase and git pull --rebase, ours and theirs may appear swapped; --ours gives the version from the branch the
    changes are rebased onto, while --theirs gives the version from the branch that holds your work that is being rebased.

    This is because rebase is used in a workflow that treats the history at the remote as the shared canonical one, and treats the work
    done on the branch you are rebasing as the third-party work to be integrated, and you are temporarily assuming the role of the
    keeper of the canonical history during the rebase. As the keeper of the canonical history, you need to view the history from the
    remote as ours (i.e. "our shared canonical history"), while what you did on your side branch as theirs (i.e. "one contributor's
    work on top of it").

-b <new_branch>
    Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at <start_point>; see git-branch(1) for details.

-B <new_branch>
    Creates the branch <new_branch> and start it at <start_point>; if it already exists, then reset it to <start_point>. This is
    equivalent to running "git branch" with "-f"; see git-branch(1) for details.

-t, --track
    When creating a new branch, set up "upstream" configuration. See "--track" in git-branch(1) for details.

    If no -b option is given, the name of the new branch will be derived from the remote-tracking branch, by looking at the local part
    of the refspec configured for the corresponding remote, and then stripping the initial part up to the "*". This would tell us to
    use "hack" as the local branch when branching off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even "refs/remotes/origin/hack").
    If the given name has no slash, or the above guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted. You can explicitly give a
    name with -b in such a case.

--no-track
    Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.

-l
    Create the new branch's reflog; see git-branch(1) for details.

--detach
    Rather than checking out a branch to work on it, check out a commit for inspection and discardable experiments. This is the default
    behavior of "git checkout <commit>" when <commit> is not a branch name. See the "DETACHED HEAD" section below for details.

--orphan <new_branch>
    Create a new orphan branch, named <new_branch>, started from <start_point> and switch to it. The first commit made on this new
    branch will have no parents and it will be the root of a new history totally disconnected from all the other branches and commits.

    The index and the working tree are adjusted as if you had previously run "git checkout <start_point>". This allows you to start a
    new history that records a set of paths similar to <start_point> by easily running "git commit -a" to make the root commit.

    This can be useful when you want to publish the tree from a commit without exposing its full history. You might want to do this to
    publish an open source branch of a project whose current tree is "clean", but whose full history contains proprietary or otherwise
    encumbered bits of code.

    If you want to start a disconnected history that records a set of paths that is totally different from the one of <start_point>,
    then you should clear the index and the working tree right after creating the orphan branch by running "git rm -rf ." from the top
    level of the working tree. Afterwards you will be ready to prepare your new files, repopulating the working tree, by copying them
    from elsewhere, extracting a tarball, etc.

--ignore-skip-worktree-bits
    In sparse checkout mode, git checkout -- <paths> would update only entries matched by <paths> and sparse patterns in
    $GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout. This option ignores the sparse patterns and adds back any files in <paths>.

-m, --merge
    When switching branches, if you have local modifications to one or more files that are different between the current branch and the
    branch to which you are switching, the command refuses to switch branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
    However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch is done,
    and you will be on the new branch.

    When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts and
    mark the resolved paths with git add (or git rm if the merge should result in deletion of the path).

    When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate the conflicted merge in the specified paths.

--conflict=<style>
    The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the merge.conflictStyle
    configuration variable. Possible values are "merge" (default) and "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by "merge" style, shows the
    original contents).

-p, --patch
    Interactively select hunks in the difference between the <tree-ish> (or the index, if unspecified) and the working tree. The chosen
    hunks are then applied in reverse to the working tree (and if a <tree-ish> was specified, the index).

    This means that you can use git checkout -p to selectively discard edits from your current working tree. See the "Interactive Mode"
    section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate the --patch mode.

--ignore-other-worktrees
    git checkout refuses when the wanted ref is already checked out by another worktree. This option makes it check the ref out anyway.
    In other words, the ref can be held by more than one worktree.

--[no-]recurse-submodules
    Using --recurse-submodules will update the content of all initialized submodules according to the commit recorded in the
    superproject. If local modifications in a submodule would be overwritten the checkout will fail unless -f is used. If nothing (or
    --no-recurse-submodules) is used, the work trees of submodules will not be updated.

<branch>
    Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that, when prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that
    branch is checked out. Otherwise, if it refers to a valid commit, your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on any branch
    (see below for details).

    As a special case, the "@{-N}" syntax for the N-th last branch/commit checks out branches (instead of detaching). You may also
    specify - which is synonymous with "@{-1}".

    As a further special case, you may use "A...B" as a shortcut for the merge base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You
    can leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.

<new_branch>
    Name for the new branch.

<start_point>
    The name of a commit at which to start the new branch; see git-branch(1) for details. Defaults to HEAD.

<tree-ish>
    Tree to checkout from (when paths are given). If not specified, the index will be used.

使用示例

# 新建一个分支,并切换到该分支
$ git checkout -b [branch]

# 切换到指定分支,并更新工作区
$ git checkout [branch-name]

# 切换到上一个分支
$ git checkout -

查看更多 git checkout 命令的使用方法,可以使用命令:

git help checkout
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