Git diff 命令

更新时间: 2019-07-13 17:17

显示暂存区和工作区的代码差异

语法

git diff [options] [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]
git diff [options] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]
git diff [options] <commit> <commit> [--] [<path>...]
git diff [options] <blob> <blob>
git diff [options] [--no-index] [--] <path> <path>

参数

-p, -u, --patch
    Generate patch (see section on generating patches). This is the default.

-s, --no-patch
    Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show that show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of --patch.

-U<n>, --unified=<n>
    Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual three. Implies -p.

--raw
    Generate the diff in raw format.

--patch-with-raw
    Synonym for -p --raw.

--indent-heuristic, --no-indent-heuristic
    These are to help debugging and tuning experimental heuristics (which are off by default) that shift diff hunk boundaries to make
    patches easier to read.

--minimal
    Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is produced.

--patience
    Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

--histogram
    Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

--diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
    Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

    default, myers
        The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.

    minimal
        Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is produced.

    patience
        Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

    histogram
        This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support low-occurrence common elements".

    For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have to
    use --diff-algorithm=default option.

--stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]
    Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph part.
    Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The width
    of the filename part can be limited by giving another width <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part can be limited
    by using --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects all commands generating a stat graph) or by setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width> (does
    not affect git format-patch). By giving a third parameter <count>, you can limit the output to the first <count> lines, followed by
    ...  if there are more.

    These parameters can also be set individually with --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and --stat-count=<count>.

--numstat
    Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it
    more machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying 0 0.

--shortstat
    Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
    lines.

--dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
    Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be customized by
    passing it a comma separated list of parameters. The defaults are controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-
    config(1)). The following parameters are available:

    changes
        Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been removed from the source, or added to the destination. This
        ignores the amount of pure code movements within a file. In other words, rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much as
        other changes. This is the default behavior when no parameter is given.

    lines
        Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For
        binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
        --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count rearranged lines within a file as much as other changes. The
        resulting output is consistent with what you get from the other --*stat options.

    files
        Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files changed. Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat analysis.
        This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents at all.

    cumulative
        Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the
        percentages reported may exceed 100%. The default (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with the noncumulative parameter.

    <limit>
        An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default). Directories contributing less than this percentage of the
        changes are not shown in the output.

    Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed
    files, and accumulating child directory counts in the parent directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

--summary
    Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as creations, renames and mode changes.

--patch-with-stat
    Synonym for -p --stat.

-z
    When --raw, --numstat, --name-only or --name-status has been given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field
    terminators.

    Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see
    git-config(1)).

--name-only
    Show only names of changed files.

--name-status
    Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean.

--submodule[=<format>]
    Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying --submodule=short the short format is used. This format just shows
    the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the range. When --submodule or --submodule=log is specified, the log format is
    used. This format lists the commits in the range like git-submodule(1)summary does. When --submodule=diff is specified, the diff
    format is used. This format shows an inline diff of the changes in the submodule contents between the commit range. Defaults to
    diff.submodule or the short format if the config option is unset.

--color[=<when>]
    Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the same as --color=always.  <when> can be one of always, never, or auto. It
    can be changed by the color.ui and color.diff configuration settings.

--no-color
    Turn off colored diff. This can be used to override configuration settings. It is the same as --color=never.

--color-moved[=<mode>]
    Moved lines of code are colored differently. It can be changed by the diff.colorMoved configuration setting. The <mode> defaults to
    no if the option is not given and to zebra if the option with no mode is given. The mode must be one of:

    no
        Moved lines are not highlighted.

    default
        Is a synonym for zebra. This may change to a more sensible mode in the future.

    plain
        Any line that is added in one location and was removed in another location will be colored with color.diff.newMoved. Similarly
        color.diff.oldMoved will be used for removed lines that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any moved
        line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine if a block of code was moved without permutation.

    zebra
        Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters are detected greedily. The detected blocks are painted using either
        the color.diff.{old,new}Moved color or color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative. The change between the two colors indicates that a
        new block was detected.

    dimmed_zebra
        Similar to zebra, but additional dimming of uninteresting parts of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
        blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.

--word-diff[=<mode>]
    Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex
    below. The <mode> defaults to plain, and must be one of:

    color
        Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

    plain
        Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in the input, so the output
        may be ambiguous.

    porcelain
        Use a special line-based format intended for script consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the usual unified
        diff format, starting with a +/-/` ` character at the beginning of the line and extending to the end of the line. Newlines in
        the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line of its own.

    none
        Disable word diff again.

    Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.

--word-diff-regex=<regex>
    Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies --word-diff unless
    it was already enabled.

    Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word. Anything between these matches is considered whitespace and
    ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make sure
    that it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

    For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each character as a word and, correspondingly, show differences character by
    character.

    The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see gitattributes(5) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
    overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers override configuration settings.

--color-words[=<regex>]
    Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified) --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

--no-renames
    Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives the default to do so.

--check
    Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors. What are considered whitespace errors is controlled by
    core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces (including lines that solely consist of whitespaces) and a space
    character that is immediately followed by a tab character inside the initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
    Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible with --exit-code.

--ws-error-highlight=<kind>
    Highlight whitespace errors in the context, old or new lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by comma, none resets
    previous values, default reset the list to new and all is a shorthand for old,new,context. When this option is not given, and the
    configuration variable diff.wsErrorHighlight is not set, only whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. The whitespace errors
    are colored whith color.diff.whitespace.

--full-index
    Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index" line when generating
    patch format output.

--binary
    In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be applied with git-apply.

--abbrev[=<n>]
    Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only a
    partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
    number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

-B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
    Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create. This serves two purposes:

    It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
    a very few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a single deletion of everything old followed by a single
    insertion of everything new, and the number m controls this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70% specifies that less
    than 30% of the original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch
    will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).

    When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
    disappeared as the source of a rename), and the number n controls this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
    that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the file's size are eligible for being picked up as a possible
    source of a rename to another file.

-M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
    Detect renames. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
    file's size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't
    changed. Without a % sign, the number is to be read as a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is
    thus the same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit detection to exact renames, use -M100%. The default
    similarity index is 50%.

-C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
    Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If n is specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

--find-copies-harder
    For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
    changeset. This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates for the source of copy. This is a very expensive
    operation for large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C option has the same effect.

-D, --irreversible-delete
    Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not the diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch
    is not meant to be applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the text
    after the change. In addition, the output obviously lacks enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence
    the name of the option.

    When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion part of a delete/create pair.

-l<num>
    The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
    rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified number.

--diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)...[*]]
    Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D), Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
    symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of
    the filter characters (including none) can be used. When * (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths are selected if
    there is any file that matches other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that matches other criteria, nothing is
    selected.

    Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.  --diff-filter=ad excludes added and deleted paths.

-S<string>
    Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for
    the scripter's use.

    It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a struct), and want to know the history of that block since it
    first came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting block in the preimage back into -S, and keep going until
    you get the very first version of the block.

-G<regex>
    Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed lines that match <regex>.

    To illustrate the difference between -S<regex> --pickaxe-regex and -G<regex>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
    file:

        +    return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
        ...
        -    hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);

    While git log -G"regexec\(regexp" will show this commit, git log -S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the number
    of occurrences of that string did not change).

    See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

--pickaxe-all
    When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that changeset, not just the files that contain the change in <string>.

--pickaxe-regex
    Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX regular expression to match.

-O<orderfile>
    Control the order in which files appear in the output. This overrides the diff.orderFile configuration variable (see git-
    config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

    The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns in <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that match the first pattern
    are output first, all files with pathnames that match the second pattern (but not the first) are output next, and so on. All files
    with pathnames that do not match any pattern are output last, as if there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end of the file.
    If multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern but no earlier patterns), their output order relative to each
    other is the normal order.

    <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

    o   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as separators for readability.

    o   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so they can be used for comments. Add a backslash ("\") to the beginning of the
        pattern if it starts with a hash.

    o   Each other line contains a single pattern.

    Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for fnmantch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
    matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "foo*bar"
    matches "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

-R
    Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk file to tree contents.

--relative[=<path>]
    When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative to
    it with this option. When you are not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the
    output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.

-a, --text
    Treat all files as text.

--ignore-space-at-eol
    Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

-b, --ignore-space-change
    Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
    whitespace characters to be equivalent.

-w, --ignore-all-space
    Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

--ignore-blank-lines
    Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

--inter-hunk-context=<lines>
    Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
    Defaults to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the config option is unset.

-W, --function-context
    Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

--exit-code
    Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1). That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and 0 means no differences.

--quiet
    Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.

--ext-diff
    Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this option
    with git-log(1) and friends.

--no-ext-diff
    Disallow external diff drivers.

--textconv, --no-textconv
    Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for details.
    Because textconv filters are typically a one-way conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be
    applied. For this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-
    patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

--ignore-submodules[=<when>]
    Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the
    default. Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs
    from the commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or
    gitmodules(5). When "untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when they only contain untracked content (but they are
    still scanned for modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work tree of submodules, only changes to the commits
    stored in the superproject are shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to submodules.

--src-prefix=<prefix>
    Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

--dst-prefix=<prefix>
    Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

--no-prefix
    Do not show any source or destination prefix.

--line-prefix=<prefix>
    Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

--ita-invisible-in-index
    By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached". This
    option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff" and non-existent in "git diff --cached". This option could be reverted
    with --ita-visible-in-index. Both options are experimental and could be removed in future.

For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also gitdiffcore(7).

-1 --base, -2 --ours, -3 --theirs
    Compare the working tree with the "base" version (stage #1), "our branch" (stage #2) or "their branch" (stage #3). The index
    contains these stages only for unmerged entries i.e. while resolving conflicts. See git-read-tree(1) section "3-Way Merge" for
    detailed information.

-0
    Omit diff output for unmerged entries and just show "Unmerged". Can be used only when comparing the working tree with the index.

<path>...
    The <paths> parameters, when given, are used to limit the diff to the named paths (you can give directory names and get diff for
    all files under them).

使用示例

# 显示暂存区和工作区的代码差异
$ git diff

# 显示暂存区和上一个commit的差异
$ git diff --cached [file]

# 显示工作区与当前分支最新commit之间的差异
$ git diff HEAD

# 显示两次提交之间的差异
$ git diff [first-branch]...[second-branch]

# 显示今天你写了多少行代码
$ git diff --shortstat "@{0 day ago}"

查看更多 git diff 命令的使用方法,可以使用命令:

git help diff
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