Git commit 命令

更新时间: 2019-07-13 17:17

提交暂存区到仓库区

语法

git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
    [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
    [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
    [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
    [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
    [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]

参数

-a, --all
    Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been modified and deleted, but new files you have not told Git about are
    not affected.

-p, --patch
    Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose which changes to commit. See git-add(1) for details.

-C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
    Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating
    the commit.

-c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
    Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can further edit the commit message.

--fixup=<commit>
    Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message will be the subject line from the specified commit
    with a prefix of "fixup! ". See git-rebase(1) for details.

--squash=<commit>
    Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message subject line is taken from the specified commit
    with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional commit message options (-m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for details.

--reset-author
    When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
    resulting commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews the author timestamp.

--short
    When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

--branch
    Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.

--porcelain
    When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

--long
    When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format. Implies --dry-run.

-z, --null
    When showing short or porcelain status output, print the filename verbatim and terminate the entries with NUL, instead of LF. If no
    format is given, implies the --porcelain output format. Without the -z option, filenames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
    explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

-F <file>, --file=<file>
    Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the message from the standard input.

--author=<author>
    Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the standard A U Thor <author@example.com> format. Otherwise <author>
    is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
    the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.

--date=<date>
    Override the author date used in the commit.

-m <msg>, --message=<msg>
    Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If multiple -m options are given, their values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.

-t <file>, --template=<file>
    When editing the commit message, start the editor with the contents in the given file. The commit.template configuration variable
    is often used to give this option implicitly to the command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to guide participants
    with some hints on what to write in the message in what order. If the user exits the editor without editing the message, the commit
    is aborted. This has no effect when a message is given by other means, e.g. with the -m or -F options.

-s, --signoff
    Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but
    it typically certifies that committer has the rights to submit this work under the same license and agrees to a Developer
    Certificate of Origin (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).

-n, --no-verify
    This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks. See also githooks(5).

--allow-empty
    Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you from
    making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.

--allow-empty-message
    Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
    empty commit message without using plumbing commands like git-commit-tree(1).

--cleanup=<mode>
    This option determines how the supplied commit message should be cleaned up before committing. The <mode> can be strip, whitespace,
    verbatim, scissors or default.

    strip
        Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace, commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.

    whitespace
        Same as strip except #commentary is not removed.

    verbatim
        Do not change the message at all.

    scissors
        Same as whitespace except that everything from (and including) the line found below is truncated, if the message is to be
        edited. "#" can be customized with core.commentChar.

            # ------------------------ >8 ------------------------

    default
        Same as strip if the message is to be edited. Otherwise whitespace.

    The default can be changed by the commit.cleanup configuration variable (see git-config(1)).

-e, --edit
    The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from commit object with -C are usually used as the commit log
    message unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message taken from these sources.

--no-edit
    Use the selected commit message without launching an editor. For example, git commit --amend --no-edit amends a commit without
    changing its commit message.

--amend
    Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new commit. The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including the effect of the
    -i and -o options and explicit pathspec), and the message from the original commit is used as the starting point, instead of an
    empty message, when no other message is specified from the command line via options such as -m, -F, -c, etc. The new commit has the
    same parents and author as the current one (the --reset-author option can countermand this).

    It is a rough equivalent for:

                $ git reset --soft HEAD^
                $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
                $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

    but can be used to amend a merge commit.

    You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you amend a commit that has already been published. (See the
    "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)

--no-post-rewrite
    Bypass the post-rewrite hook.

-i, --include
    Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is
    usually not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted merge.

-o, --only
    Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents of the paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents
    that have been staged for other paths. This is the default mode of operation of git commit if any paths are given on the command
    line, in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is specified together with --amend, then no paths need to be
    specified, which can be used to amend the last commit without committing changes that have already been staged. If used together
    with --allow-empty paths are also not required, and an empty commit will be created.

-u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
    Show untracked files.

    The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
    default is normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.

    The possible options are:

    o   no - Show no untracked files

    o   normal - Shows untracked files and directories

    o   all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.

        The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles configuration variable documented in git-config(1).

-v, --verbose
    Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be committed at the bottom of the commit message template to help the user
    describe the commit by reminding what changes the commit has. Note that this diff output doesn't have its lines prefixed with #.
    This diff will not be a part of the commit message. See the commit.verbose configuration variable in git-config(1).

    If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between what would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged
    changes to tracked files.

-q, --quiet
    Suppress commit summary message.

--dry-run
    Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left uncommitted
    and paths that are untracked.

--status
    Include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit message. Defaults to
    on, but can be used to override configuration variable commit.status.

--no-status
    Do not include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template when using an editor to prepare the default commit
    message.

-S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
    GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
    option without a space.

--no-gpg-sign
    Countermand commit.gpgSign configuration variable that is set to force each and every commit to be signed.

--
    Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

<file>...
    When files are given on the command line, the command commits the contents of the named files, without recording the changes
    already staged. The contents of these files are also staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.

使用示例

# 提交暂存区到仓库区
$ git commit -m [message]

# 提交暂存区的指定文件到仓库区
$ git commit [file1] [file2] ... -m [message]

# 提交工作区自上次commit之后的变化,直接到仓库区
$ git commit -a

# 提交时显示所有diff信息
$ git commit -v

# 使用一次新的commit,替代上一次提交
# 如果代码没有任何新变化,则用来改写上一次commit的提交信息
$ git commit --amend -m [message]

# 重做上一次commit,并包括指定文件的新变化
$ git commit --amend [file1] [file2] ...

查看更多 git commit 命令的使用方法,可以使用命令:

git help commit
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